Environmental Indicators are tools for assessing environmental trends, checking progress against objectives and targets, evaluating policy effectiveness and communicating complex phenomena․ The Indicators answer key policy questions and support environmental policy making, in designing policy frameworks, setting targets, monitoring, evaluating and communicating policy.
As of January 2020, Armenia has developed the following Environmental Indicators:
Armenia is not a water-scarce country; however, it faces severe water stress conditions, with an annual water exploitation index (WEI) of greater than 40 % (WEI 61.4 % in 2017), due to high demands for public water supply (61 %) and for agriculture (34 %). Total water abstraction for both sectors accounted for 95 % of annual total freshwater abstraction of the country in 2017.
Between 2000 and 2017, total freshwater use increased by 44.5 %. Agriculture, particularly irrigation and aquaculture, accounted for 86 % of total freshwater use in 2017. On average, almost 30 % of freshwater abstraction is lost during transport. In 2017, 28.8 % was lost, indicating a slight decrease.
An average Armenian citizen used 36 m3 of water from renewable freshwater resources in 2017 compared with 48 m3 in 2000. Since 2009, there has been an increasing trend both in the total water supply to households and in water use per capita, due to the expansion of the public water supply system to rural areas. Today, 97.3 % of the population of Armenia is connected to the public water supply system.
Most of the population (97.3 %) in Armenia was connected to the water supply in 2017. The estimated percentage of the population connected to the public water supply had increased by 9.7 % in 2017 compared with 2000.
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium concentration have increased in Armenian rivers below settlements over the period 2010-2017. The main sources of BOD and ammonium pollution are discharge of non-treated or not sufficiently treated household wastewater, which due to the lack of treatment plants is directly emitted to the rivers, and agriculture runoff.
The nutrient concentrations have increased in Armenian rivers below settlements over the period 2008 to 2017 due to emissions of untreated domestic wastewater from settlements and diffuse runoff from agriculture. The main sources of nutrients are agriculture, wastewater and storm water. When nutrients are not fully utilized by plants, they can be lost from the farm fields and negatively impact downstream water quality.
Armenia has made substantial progress in designating also Emerald sites. Total protected area including Emerald sites reached to 25.6 % of the country territory in 2017. With this areal coverage of protected areas, Armenia surpassed already Aichi biodiversity target 11, which aims to have 17 % of terrestrial and inland water areas under the protected area system by 2020.